There are eight major components to an air conditioning system in a home. The thermostat is set to the desired temperature and it triggers the condenser fan and compressor to turn on. Then, it pumps a refrigerant through the system, which changes from a vapor to a liquid in a cycle as it flows through the system.
The heat from your home is carried out and becomes low pressure vapor, then condenses into a liquid in the compressor coils. The fan helps this to be removed from the system.
A high pressure, medium temperature liquid goes to the system’s metering device, where it goes through a valve and a sensor adjusts the refrigerant flow rate based on the temperature of this liquid. It then turns the liquid into a low temperature vapor/liquid mix that has lower pressure. The chilled refrigerant goes to the blower, where it cools the air and sends it throughout the house. Room temperature air goes into the return duct and the filter takes out particulates.
This air goes into the supply duct, where it’s cooled and passes through the coils. The refrigerant gets boiled and evaporates. Condensation builds up on the coil and gets sent to a condensate drain line. The refrigerant goes back out to the condenser where it disperses outdoors. Your thermostat shuts off once it reaches the desired temperature you set for your home.